Yield Assessment for PV projects

We offer Yield Assessment services for PV projects, taking benefit from the experience accumulated at IES-UPM, carrying on the yield assessment and commissioning of more than 60 PV plants and 25,000 BIPV systems in Europe. We have developed our own simulation toolboxes, especially designed to be used in contexts where bankability is of chief importance.




Our simulation tools provide, among other simulation results, the energy yield, the analysis and breakdown of energy losses, and the estimations of financial returns adapted to the legal and financial frameworks of each European country.

The simulation runs with time series of irradiance, cell temperature, and wind speed. A time series of horizontal radiation is generated using different models. Global irradiation components (beam and diffuse) are calculated using global-diffuse correlations. Other implemented approaches generate the horizontal time series considering clear sky models.

The simulation tools handle a wide diversity of topologies:

  • Ground
  • Roof
  • Tracking strategies: one axis horizontal or inclined, one axis vertical, two axis (1st vertical, 2nd horizontal), two axis (1st vertical, 2nd horizontal), Venetian blind type, two axis (1st vertical, 2nd perpendicular), backtracking optimization strategies.
  • Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV).

Our simulations support three types of analysis: real-time, temporal and sweep:

  • Real-time analysis performs the simulation at a given instant providing the real operating conditions and state of the PV systems.
  • Temporal analysis, which is the most common, performs the simulation for a selected interval of time, usually a day, a month or a year.
  • Sweep analysis performs a variation of an input parameter over a specified range, which allows studying its influence on the system performance.

Our simulation tools can directly import 3D objects or topographic maps from external files or public libraries, and it allows knowing in detail the shape of the shading objects (at any desired resolution level). It is combined to a one-diode electric model that calculates the effective energy losses factors from the geometric shading factors.

Our simulation tools generate economic and financial evaluations adapted to particular scenarios defined by legal frameworks of a country (feed-in-tariff, public support, inflation, taxes, etc.) and system characteristics (yearly degradation of PV modules, operation and maintenance costs, useful lifetime, etc.).

Simulation results are expressed in the form tables, graphics or reports selected by the users.